A

DESCRIPTION OF THE GENUS

PEN

ILLUSTRATED WITH FIGURES,

DIRECTIONS RELATIVE TO THE CULTIVATION, AND

REMARKS ON THE USES

OF

THE SEVERAL SPECIES.

BY

AYLMER BOURKE LAMBERT, ESQ. F.R.S. F.S.A.

VICE PRESIDENT OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY.

GENERIS HUJUS SPECIES MERENTUR ATTENTIUS EXAMINARI A BOTANICIS, ET NULLUS DUBITO, QUIN PLURIMAS POSSIDEAT EUROPA DISTINCTISSIMAS, QUA NUNC CONFUS/E IGNORAT/EQUE LATENT. JACQ. IC. RAR.

LONDON: © PRINTED FOR J. WHITE, AT HORACE'S HEAD, FLEET STREET,

BY T. BENSLEY, BOLT COURT.

1803.

BEC 811930

TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

Sr JOSEPH BANKS, Baroner, K.B.

PRESIDENT OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY, &c. &c.

DEDICATED THE GREATEST PART OF HIS LIFE

THE PROMOTION OF NATURAL SCIENCE,

AND

RENDERING IT USEFUL TO MANKIND.

HOW EMINENTLY HE HAS SUCCEEDED ALL EUROPE IS SUFFICIENTLY INFORMED, AND HIS NAME WILL CONTINUE AN ORNAMENT TO THE PAGES OF SCIENCE,

TILL TIME SHALL BE NO MORE.

PREFACE.

Tue difficulty and obscurity of the Genus Prnvs have long been remarked and regretted by Botanists; and, though so many of its species possess peculiar recommendations to the attention of horticulturists, instructions have been wanting for their better cultivation and management. It is in consequence of the growth of this tribe having been little attended to, and of authors forming their descriptions chiefly from dried and mutilated specimens, that so much confusion has prevailed. Even Linneeus himself seems to have been very partially acquainted with the changes produced by diversity of soil, and the various stages of growth; and the Hortus Kewensis, in which the species are certainly much better distinguished than in any other work, does not enumerate all that are now known, nor does it in every instance discriminate their characters correctly. Conceiving therefore a new arrangement of the Genus to be particularly desirable, I have devoted my attention to it for some years, and have not failed to apply to every source of information connected with the subject, having visited every plantation within many miles of the metropolis, and consulted every author of repute, with a view not only to ascertain the most accurate specific distinctions; but also to collect every fact relative to the culture and uses of every individual species. One of my objects in writing this work was to endeavour to promote the growth of deal timber in this country, which might be effected much more than at present, and would certainly prove of national importance. Neither would I overlook the ornamental part, or the improvement of the numerous plantations around the Noblemen and Gentlemen’s seats in this kingdom, which at present are composed too much of one species of Pinus, and that not the most beautiful, the Scotch Fir. I attribute this to the different species not having been properly pointed out, a defect which is here endeavoured to be remedied. I cannot help lamenting that more has not been done in London towards the promotion of natural science in describing and publishing accounts of the numerous and interesting public museums of natural history here collected; more abundantly perhaps than in any other part of Europe. But collections are piled upon collections and altogether neglected, while new productions are sought with avidity in distant regions, and I cannot but agree with Cuvier in his excellent Eloge on the celebrated Bruguieres, that one cause of this neglect, and perhaps the chief, is the facility of procuring pleasures of all kinds in a gay and rich metropolis, added to the charms of the fascinating society in which we live; all these hold out temptations which encroach terribly on literary leisure, and only leave room for a few sacrifices to celebrity; which it must be confessed are not advanced by insulated descriptions and minute discussions.

The most remarkable gardens for the cultivation of Pines in this country are at Pain’s fill, which are preferable perhaps to any in Europe, both for variety of species, and excel- lence of growth. A considerable sum of money was formerly made by the gardener every year by selling the cones for seed. ew Gardens likewise furnish many species in high per- fection. Among the most striking are Pinus palustris, probably now the largest in England; Pinus Cembra, annually producing fruit; Pinus Pwnilio, Pinus [alepensis, and Pinus resinosa.

a

ii

There are several Pines remaining at Whitton, the seat of the late Duke of Argyll, so often referred to in the Hortus Kewensis. The first Pinus Cembra ever planted in our Island is now growing in these gardens in perfect maturity. Not less worthy of attention are two fine trees of Pinus pendula and Pinus microcarpa, bearing great quantities of cones annually. Sion, the seat of the Duke of Northumberland, furnishes many fine trees of this Genus, particularly of Pinus resinosa and Pinus Teda. Croom, the seat of the Earl of Coventry, affords almost every species that can be procured. Here are large trees of Pinus palustris, Pinus Pumilio, Pinus Banksiana, &c. The perfection to which Pines arrive on a strong soil may be seen in the very extensive plantations of Lord Rivers, at Stratfieldsay, Hampshire; which, in about forty-two years have grown to a much greater size than any others I have ever seen. In the year 1799, I paid a visit with the worthy President of the Linnean Society, Dr. Smith, to the curious garden of the late Peter Collinson,* at Mill Hill, and was much delighted to find it nearly in the same state as it was left to his son the late Mr. Michael Collinson, who bestowed much attention upon it. We saw here three trees of Pinus Cembra, the finest in Icngland, and a most flourishing Pinus pendula, the first that was introduced into this country. I could not help feeling regret when this delightful seat of Flora, where the owner was in frequent correspondence with Linneeus, and which contained the produce of so many distant travels, was sold by Mr. Charles Collinson, and exposed to the danger of being converted into a mere pleasure garden. It has of late however become the property of Richard Anthony Salisbury, Esq. a gentleman no less passionately attached to the study of Botany than distinguished for his accurate knowledge in that science, and in whose possession the many curious vegetable productions that are still remaining will be inviolably secured from all destruction.” It is proper in this place to mention how much I am indebted to the works of Evelyn, Du Hamel, Hunter,*. and Wangenheim.’ The last in particular, which has not hitherto appeared in our own language, was found to contain so much valuable matter, that it has been quoted very largely. I ought also here to express my obligations to Dr. James Edward Smith, Dr. William George Maton, Richard Anthony Salisbury, Esq. Jonas Dry- ander, Esq. and William Townshend Aiton, Esq. from whose kind attention and important communications I have derived essential assistance throughout the whole progress of this work. It is my intention to follow up the present work with an illustration of the remaining Genera in the natural order of Conifere. Several drawings are already finished for that pur- pose of the species of Dacrydium, and the Dombeya of Lamarck, which are intended to be given to the public as soon as possible. ute

*T have lately been favoured with a sight of the remains of this celebrated naturalist’s Herbarium, and have also perused many most interesting letters written by him from Mill Hill to Linnzus, and now in the hands of Dr. Smith. A great part of the Herbarium has been destroyed, and what is left contains but few specimens worthy of notice, communicated to him chiefly by John Bartram from America. There are attached to them several notes of the donor in his own hand-writing, which strongly mark the simplicity of his heart. Several of his letters are also in the Linnean Museum.

» Tn another visit to the garden at Mill Hill before it came into the possession of Mr. Salisbury, I very much lamented seeing the fine Pinus pendula cut down and converted into paling for part of the garden. I brought home a large piece of its timber, the grain of which, when polished, shewed itself to be equally good with that of the White Larch, Pinus Larix.

© Traité des Arbres et Arbustes, 2 Tomes.

* Edition of Evelyn’s Sylva, 4to. 1755, and ato. 1774.

* Beytrag zur tutschen holzgesechten forst wissenschaft. Folio, Gotting.

CHARACTER GENERICUS. MONOECIA MONADELPHIA. Linn. CONIFERE. Juss.

Flores amentacet monoitci.

MASCULI. Catyx. Ament squama. Corotta nulla. Stamina. [lamenta plurima, inferné connatain columnam. Anthere biloculares, superné subcristatee.

FQMINEI.

Catyx. Strobilus constans sqwamis imbricatis, bifloris, persistentibus, induratis, singulis stigma ferentibus.

Corotta nulla.

Pistittum. Germen minimum, geminum, squamis superné insertum. Séylws nullus, nisi strobili squama. Ségma in apice vel dorso squame.

Semrna bina, oblonga, plis mints alata.

tee

i cB

sand nro bh: i aysdsrussle

10

29 30 Si: 32

32%

SYNOPSIS OF THE SPECIES.

* Foliis pluribus ex eddem basi vaginal.

PAGE. sylvestris - - - - = 2 5 1 , = Pumilio - - = - = = S5 a fi Banksiana - - < - 2 & 7 E a Pinaster = = = - = 5 9 z) 2 Pinea - - - : - 2 é =. iil i - maritima = 5 c < . e eels e # Halepensis = - c 7 3 a : Sas 2 i Massoniana - = ce 2 = 5 a il zi a inops - = 2 2 - 2 a > its} s 4 resinosa S - = : . 6 20) e variabilis —_- o s . - é = oY) Ss Tada - = S e j 2 os 98} ~ is rigida - © 2 2 é = A - 25 is Bs palustris c S a - = ie a. Mf E 3 longifolia a = 3 S 2 = 9X6) = ss Strobus 2 é é : a oil a a Cembra - : 2 s 2 o - 34 = i occidentalis - 3 Bes r = 36 e a * * Foliis solitariis ramos ambientibus. Abies - S - © 2 2 a 5 RY 2 : alba - a = é - a = - 39 5 aa nigra = - - 2 & & a a Sera 3 rubra - 4 = . i - AZ Cs f orientalis es e 2 = os = 9545 s picea - - = 2 : & LAG = a Balsamea = = : Ss a Z 7a ns : canadensis - : : = = 50 : = taxifolia © : : : 3 . 5 isi! me a lanceolata - : 2 - s - 5. e *** Foliis numerosis fasciculatis ex und basi vaginal. Larix - 5 a 8 = a i 5 Be f in pendula 7 = 5 e i S55 = 5 microcarpa—s- - 2 = = 4 == 56 zs £ Cedrus 2 - C = : a 2258 A **** Addenda. Dammara - - 3 6 ss é = Gl 2 a

TAB.

25. 26: Nil 28. 20. 30. 31. 32. 33. 3A,

SOF 36.

37.

38.

. . - Ai z { a os ;

ay). : ee | AAVAAD ylresties : Br : Warner, aly

herd! Bauc vide. Maz: ; é a

* Folus pluribus ex eddem basi vaginali.

TABS al

1. PINUS SYLVESTRIS.

SCOTCH FIR.

Pinus sytvestris, foliis geminis rigidis, strobilis junioribus pedunculatis recurvis dependentibus, antherarum crista exigua.

. sylvestris, foliis geminis, rigidis; strobilis ovato-conicis, longitudine foliorum, subgeminis, basi

rotundatis. Soland. Ms.

P. sylvestris. Linn. Sp. Pl. 1418. Syst. 860. ed. Reich. v. 4. 172. Hort. Cliff. 450. n. 1. Fl. Suec. n. 874. Lapp. n. 346, Mat. Med. n. 470. Woodv. Med. Bot. 570. #. 207. Sm. Fl. Brit. 1031. Huds. Angl. 423. With. Arr. ed. 3.618. Lightf: Scot. 587. Pallas. Ross. v.1. 8. t. 2. oly bk Scop. Carn. m. 1196. Pollich. Pall. n. 913. Gunn. Norv. n. 337. Villars. Dauph. v. 3. 804. Trew. in Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. 3. App. A52. t.18. S-1.3. 4.16. f. 2.25. Mill. Hust. t.82. Du Rot Harb. ed. Pott. v.2.16. Evel. Sylv. ed. Hunt. t. 262. Blackw. t. 190.

P. foliis binis, convexo-concavis, conis masculis solitariis alaribus. Hall. Helvet. n. 1660.

P. rubra. Mill. Dict. n. 3.

P. sylvestris communis. 474. Kew. v.3. 3606.

P.n.29. Gmel. Sib. v. 1. 178.

Habitat in Europe borealis sylvis glareosis. Floret Maio.

DESCRIPTIO.

Arbor excelsa, rectiuscula, ramis obliquis. Cortex squamoso-deciduus. olia e vaginis tubulosis,

membranaceis, corrugatis, laceris, per ramulos spiralitér dispositis, geminatim prodeuntia, biun- cialia, erecto-patentia, linearia, obtusa cum mucronulo cartilagineo, serrulata; supra canaliculata; subtus convexa, ecarinata; atro-viridia, glabra, sempervirentia. Amenta terminalia, pedunculata, basi bracteata: mavscula spicata, numerosa, erecta, ovata, obtusa, flava, nuda; staminibus mona- delphis, numerosis; antheris pedicellatis, cuneato-oblongis, marginatis, bilocularibus, apice crista membranaceé, parva, sub-erosi, auctis: JSeminea sepis terna, erecta, ovato-subrotunda, viridia, post impregnationem recurvato-pendula ac fuscescentia; squamis imbricatis, dilatatis, acuminatis; bracteis interioribus elongato-acuminatis, ciliato-dentatis. Strobilus secundo anno maturus, pendulus sesquiuncialis, ovato-oblongus, tessellatus, squamis angulatis, pyramidatis, retusis, tuberculosis, inermibus. Seminzm ala verticalis, falcato-lanceolata, elongata, acuta. B

Q

Tuts well known tree, though tall, seldom grows straight, and the dranches shoot rather obliquely. The dark is rough and cracked. The leaves are short, pungent, concave on the upper surface, convex on the under, and of a pale green colour. The male flowers are whitish. The pollen is sometimes in spring carried away by the wind in such quantities, as to alarm the ignorant with the notion of its raining brimstone. The séfrodilz, or cones, are small, nearly conical, and pointed; they grow to the number of two, three, or four together round the branches. While they are young, they are generally pendent, and of a purplish colour. The squame, or scales of the cones project in the middle, and form four distinct areee, or compartments. The seeds are small, somewhat like those of P. Abies.

As P. sylvestris grows spontaneously in Scotland, Denmark, Norway, and other countries in the north of Europe, it would seem that a cold climate alone suited it, but experience proves that when it is properly reared and planted, no temperature, scarcely, impedes its growth to a considerable size.

The seeds should be procured in the following manner. The cones, which must be gathered in the winter, should be preserved until the month of June, when they must be occasionally brought forth, and exposed to the utmost heat of the sun; this will cause the scales to open, so that the seeds may easily be shaken out. They should be laid on a large carpet, or oil cloth, which will save the seeds that drop when. the cones are turned, for as often as the scales on one side of them are opened, it is proper that the other should be turned. to the sun to receive the same effect. These seeds will be fit to be sown in the spring following; the middle of April or May is the best time. Warm dry weather is requisite for the sowing, and a fine light mould. Beds should be made in the seminary three or four feet wide, and the seeds sown in these at a little more than a quarter of an inch in depth. The young Firs will appear in about six weeks, with the husks of the seeds on their heads, and at this period they must be carefully watched, for if the sparrows or other birds once take to them, they will destroy every plant as fast as it comes up, so fond are these creatures of the husks. In order therefore to secure the young crops, it will be proper to cover them with some good nets, and to draw over the latter strings with feathers tied across, that before they have any temptation, the birds may be frightened away, and the plants, at their first appearance, remain unnoticed by them. As soon as all the plants are come up, and have parted with their husks, the nets and strings with feathers may be taken off, for the seedlings will then be out of danger.

The following summer they will need no other care than being kept free from weeds. In the latter end of March, or the beginning of April, the second year, they should be taken out of those beds, and put into others at the distance of three or four inches from each other. When they are first removed, being one year old from the seeds, they will be found to have no shoot, but are slender plants with small weak buds; and by the spring following few of them will have made a shoot, though the bud will be considerably stronger. In the spring of the third year the young Firs ought to be removed a second time, viz. into the nursery, where they should be planted about one foot asunder, and at the distance of two feet in the rows. The ensuing summer they will have grown to the height of one foot, or more. In the spring of the fourth year, if the ground designed for the plantation be ready, and there be no rabbits nor hares near the spot, they may be transplanted for the last time. If any of the animals just mentioned have the means of getting to them, it will be most advisable to defer the final removal to another year. Plantations are often wholly destroyed by hares, the winter after they are made, unless they have acquired some strength and reached the height of three or four feet. But here it ought to be remarked, that the larger the trees may be grown, the greater will be the difficulty of removing them, and when they are of a tolerable height, many will necessarily be lost after they have been transplanted. It is advisable to allow Firs, in all open situations, the distance of four feet or more, and to place them irregularly in the final place of growth. They will always flourish best when planted in turf, or where the earth has not been disturbed. (From not attending to this circumstance, it often happens that the trees become unhealthy and defective. Fruit trees, in some parts of the west of England, particularly Wiltshire, are apt to suffer in the same way, on account of having a border before them; and I have known a large garden planted three times, in consequence of this circum-

3

stance, which notwithstanding may occur only in chalky soils, as I have had no experience of other situations.) In about five or six years, the branches will have met, and begun to interfere with each other; pruning will now be necessary, but it is not to be done without great caution, and the lower branches only are to be taken away. The operation ought to be performed in September, at which time there will be no danger of the wounds bleeding too much. It should be repeated every other year, leaving all the upper branches entire; the lower should be cut close to the stem. As these trees never put forth new shoots where they are pruned, nor from below that part, so they suffer more from amputation than others. At the expiration of twelve or fourteen years, no more pruning will be neces- sary, for such branches as do not enjoy a free access of air, will die; but if the young trees have made good progress, it may be proper to thin them occasionally. The gardener ought to begin with those which are in the middle of the plantation, in order that they may enjoy the shelter of those which are on the outside, for a time, and then acquire strength before the whole number are exposed to the admission of a greater current of cold air. When the plantations are thinned the roots should not be torn up, lest the trees which are left standing be injured; as these roots will not shoot again, no disad- vantage can arise from suffering them to decay in the earth. As the upright growth of these Firs renders their wood the more valuable, they should be left pretty close together, in order to draw each other up. Some trees will shoot to the height of twenty feet with perfect straightness. If they be left eight feet asunder each way, there will be quite sufficient room for their growth.

It is from P. sylvestris that the red Deal is obtained, as we are informed by Mr. Coxe. The white is from P. Abies, which, he says, is the most demanded, because no country produces it in such quantities as Christiania and its vicinity. One tree yields three pieces of timber eleven or twelve feet in length, and is usually sawed into three planks. Before it arrives at its greatest perfection, however, a tree must generally attain seventy or eighty years growth. (See Northern Tour, vol. v. p. 37. oct. edit.) I am indebted to Mr. Davis, of Wiltshire, for much information on the subject of Deal, as well as on the produce of other species of Pines, which the reader will find in another part of this work. It is surprising that this species is not more cultivated on waste grounds in several parts of Great Britain, as the few planted on Bagshot and Hounslow Heaths, &c. succeed so well. I have observed it thrives least on chalky land; but even there it does as well, if not better, than any other species, provided the ground be not disturbed about its roots. The Jarva of an insect, (which I suppose to be one of the under mentioned Phalene, although I have not yet had an opportunity of watching its transformation to determine the species") injures the young plantations of this tree. The larva introduces itself into the pith, or medulla of the young shoots on which it feeds, and which are soon destroyed by it. I have seen several young trees in the plantations of Henry William Portman, Esq. at Bryanston, Dorset, bearing marks of the injury alluded to; and the same circumstance I observed in the year 1801, in the large trees of this species in the plantation of William Beckford, Esq. at Fonthill, Wilts. The first volume of the Musewm Rusticum contains a paper on this subject.

The following insects are observed to take up their abode on P. sylvestris, vix. Phalena dylvatica. P. catenata. P. seticornis. P. testacea. P.resinorum. Tenthredo pennacea. T. erythrocephala. Aphis Pini. Curculio Pini. C. septentrionalis. Dermestes premorsus. D. piniperda. (Ipe piniperda of Marsham.) Cimex pinetorum, and Acarus ruber.

It has been supposed, from the authority of Duhamel, that P. sylvestris grows in St. Domingo, but the Pine sent from that island is the P. occidentalis of Swartz, hereafter to be mentioned.

There is a specimen in the Banksian collection, marked Pinus Tatarica, from Paine’s Hill,” which is distinguished from P. sylvestris, in Dr. Solander’s description, solely by the colour of the branches.

*Since writing the above I find it to be Dermestes piniperda, Linn. Ips piniperda, Marsham, Entom. Brit. 57.

» Linnzeus says of this species, “‘ Habitat in Europe ramulis inferioribus pini, quos perforat, exsiccat, unde nature hortulanus in hac arbore.” But its depredations are not confined to the lower branches: for in the extensive plantations of Mr. Beckford, at Fonthill, so much of the medulla of the young shoots has been eaten through by this insect, that many fine trees have been almost destroyed; and in the year 1801, when I observed this fact, apprehensions were entertained of several others suffering the like fate.

Cc

EXPLANATION OF TAB. 1.

" seaidtoehi! contrary is not epieseeal are of the natural size. In the detail of the fructification such parts as are of the natural size are distinguished by small

eters the serge ones being sieve! marked wel capitals.

SaAgt Male catkin with its bracteee. B,B. Anthera. C,C. Crest of the Anthera. d,D. Female catkin with its bractece. A separate scale. A ripe cone. The same expanded by drought. | Seed with its wing.

Tab M.

h

ae 25 AS “i DY S & RY S Cw SY S

ACATB: 42:

2. PINUS PUMILIO. THE MUGHO, OR MOUNTAIN PINE. KRUMHOLZ. Germ.

Pinus Pumixio foliis geminis abbreviatis strictis, strobilis ovatis obtusis minimis; junioribus sessilibus erectis.

. sylvestris montanay. Act. Kew. v. 3. 366.

. sylves. pumilis,. Neal. Cat. Hort. Blackb. 50.

Mughus. Dz Roi Harbk. ed. Pott. v. 2. Al. Scop. Carn. 2.1195. Wilden. Berlin. Baumz. 206. . conis erectis. Tournef: Inst. 586. Scheuchx. It. 460. Duhamel. Arb. v. 2. 126. n. 13.

. humilis, julo purpurascente. Tournef. Inst. 586. Duhamel. Arb. v. 2. 126. n. 12.

. sudeticus seu carpaticus. Ungarisch. Mag. 3 ter band. 38.

Pinaster conis erectis. Bauh. Pin. 492.

P. Pumilio ex monte Arb’ Bavariee. Camer. Hort. 127.

P. Pumilio montanus. Park. 1537. f. 8.

P. Pumilio. Clus. Pan. 15. Hencke Beob. 68. Hall. Helvet. n. 1660. y.

P. quartus austriacus. Clus. Hist. v. 1. 32.

RR

Habitat in montosis Europe australis. Floret Junio.

DESCRIPTIO.

Minima in hoc genere. Praecedente longe humilior, vix septempedalis, sarmentis repentibus, ramu- lisque radicantibus., Folia minora. Antherarwm crista ampliata, biloba. .Amenta feminea nunquam arcuato-recurva. S¢robili ovati, obtusi, duplo quam in precedente minores.

Tue specimen from which the figure was taken, was obligingly presented to me by John Black - burn, Esq. of Orford. The tree was planted by that gentleman’s father, who possessed one of the finest collections of exotic plants in the kingdom, an account of which may be seen in Neal’s Catalogue, and which is still kept up with great care and attention.

The Mugho Pine grows on the tops of the highest mountains, where scarcely any other tree is to be found, and it often covers with its thick and almost impenetrable branches a very extensive tract. Hzencke has given the most complete description of it that I can find, and this is copied by our coun- tryman Townson, who observed this species to be very exuberant on the mountains of the more

D

6

northern parts of Hungary. The roots generally run, it seems, in an oblique or subhorizontal direction;

they are long, thick, and hard, clothed above ground with a brownish bark,

derable extent quite bare of earth. The branches proceed either immediately from the root, OF from a They are commonly about four or five feet in height, On the upper part the branches

shooting often to a consi-

low radicating trunk, scattered, long, and pliable. but in some instances will exceed that of a man by one foot or more. are extremely thick, and covered with a strong ash-coloured bark, which is rendered very rough and uneven by the tubercles of the fallen leaves. ‘The smallest branches are very short as well as thick, bent in at the base, and naked to a certain height, but at the upper part they are profusely leaved and folded within each other. The leaves spring from a dry, jagged, brownish sheath, and are of a woody texture, being firm and tough. They are slightly incurvated, often twisted, and obtuse. The under surface is flat, or but slightly concave, the upper convex, the margins are minutely serrated. They are smooth, shining, faintly striated, and of a green colour, approaching to yellow at the points. Their length is from one to one inch and a half, and the breadth scarcely one fourth part of aline. The male flowers are terminal, and grow several in a bunch. The female lateral, sessile, invariably erect, sometimes single, sometimes collected into a bunch to the number of ten or twelve, ovate or subglobose, and resemble very much those of P. Larix, both in size and shape; in colour they are brownish, or inclined to purple. The squame, or scales, are imbricated, in their more advanced state, often open and without the apew that appears in the earlier ones. There is a gibbosity outwards; and on the inner side, somewhat of a concavity is observable. This tree though of humble growth, when planted on a lawn, assumes a handsome and ornamental appearance. It was supposed to be a variety of P. ayl- vestrid, but I had made a distinct species of it before I saw Heenke’s description. What distinguishes it particularly from the latter is, the young cones which grow erect and sessile until they are above one year old, when they become horizontal; and they can scarcely be said to be pendent, even when they are full grown; whereas those of P. sylvestris have long peduncles, and become pendent soon after they are impregnated with the pollen. The cones of P. Pumilio are of a looser texture, and but slightly attached to the tree. When the branches of this tree are broken, a transparent resin of a very fragrant smell exudes, and this is collected and sold in the form of a native Balsam. A. sort of empyreumatic ethereal oil is obtained by distillation from the burned branches, and sold in Hungary, under the name of Krumholz oil.

There is a specimen in the Herbarium of Sir Joseph Banks, marked in Miller’s own hand-writing Pinus Tatarica, which without doubt belongs to Pinas Pumilio.

Pinus Mughus, Jacq. Ic. rar. tab. 193, does not belong to P. Pwmilio, but appears to be only a variety of P. sylvestris from a specimen I examined in the Herbarium at Oxford.

EXPLANATION OF TAB. 9.

Male Catkin. Anthera. Female Catkin. . Separate scales. ‘Young cones in their natural situation. Ripe cones.

bar)

A. separate scale.

Seed.

Leaves with their sheath. Point of a leaf magnified.

ra mS GOW b S

Tah. Mh.

r. ss = = =) Vi ~ = Snr = as > SS > S S SS Las ms . . SS SS S S : SS SS SSS > b SS S . .;

ws =

fel

cg Po) ae As .f Sg > ty PEs rz if s = aoe wa et < cy, : bF! Fant : : AN eas as BED

bf : C pe i ~—~<tIVttld Y aw yy LAVA’

TAB. 8.

8 PINUS BANKSIANA.

LABRADOR PINE.

Pinus Banxsrana foliis geminis divaricatis obliquis, strobilis recurvis tortis, antherarum crist dilatata.

P. sylvestris divaricata 3. Ait. Kew. v. 3. 366. P. canadensis bifolia, foliis curtis et falcatis, conis mediis incurvis. Duhamel. Arb. v. 2. 126. n. 10.?

Habitat in Americé septentrionali.

Floret Maio.

DESCRIPTIO.

Arbor ramosissima, patula, ramis longissimis. Folia uncialia, falcata. Amenta mascula cylindracea ; antheris sessilibus, crista reniformi, emarginata, crenata, utrinque prominula. Strobzli bini vel terni, sessiles, magnitudine P. sylvestris sed graciliores, pallidiores, flavescentes, acuminati, et insigniter incurvato-torti.

The specimen represented in the plate was taken from a remarkably fine tree growing at * Pain’s Hill, Surrey. The branches of this tree bore more fruit than any species I have seen. The cones were not more than five or six inches distant from one another in scarcely any part of the tree, and they were growing two or three together. Many of the young shoots were covered with resin, the odour of which was inconceivably fragrant. It flowered, I was informed, earlier in the spring than any other Pine. It is most partial to a sandy soil. The branches shoot very thickly almost the whole of its height, and consequently render the timber too knotty to be made into good masts, though it is very pliable, and contains a great quantity of resin. The leaves do not differ much from those of P. oyl- vestrid, except that they are curved and divaricated, the pairs touching each other at their extremities so as to form a sort of ring. The cones are curved in a similar manner, having the appearance of horns springing from the branches; they are of nearly the same thickness as those of the Scotch Fir, but rather longer. At present P. Banksiana is very rare in England; I know only three of any size, one of which is at Pain’s Hill, and this is certainly the finest; one at Kew, and the other at Croome, the seat of the Earl of Coventry. It is surprising that this species should ever have been supposed to be a variety of P. sylvestris, the one being an American, the other an European tree. I am not acquainted with any author who has noticed it, except Mr. Aiton in his Hortus Kewensis. Whether Duhamel’s species above quoted be the same, may be questioned; but as he mentions the cones to be remarkably contorted,

* This beautiful spot was the seat of the late Hon. Charles Hamilton. It is now in the occupation of Moffat, Esq. Linnzus the son visited those gardens in company with Sir Joseph Banks, and expressed himself highly gratified in viewing their productions,

E

8

I have given his synonym with a doubt. By whom this species was first introduced into England I have not yet learned. Mr. F orsyth, of Kensington Gardens, received a tree of it some years ago from a person who had been sent into the interior parts of America by the late Dr. Fothergill; this probably was the first that found its way into England.

feo AswiGam' entirely obliged to Sir J oseph Banks for the first knowledge of this species, I have given it his name.

EXPLANATION OF TAB. 3.

. Leaves with their sheath.

. Male Catkin.

. Anthera.

. Female Catkin.

Ripe Cone.

Scale of the Cone.

. The same seen on its inside. . Seeds.

i. A Seed without its wing.

Poe ho a Og e

<A0VMA dinadser

Warne’ sculp :

Vi

Ferd © Bauer delin.

Tub V

SID. LT). oe “2 iP y

es LAM CY. GL, CZ ref Let

CC

e And bvae self

UAB SA Sco:

4, PINUS PINASTER.

THE PINASTER, OR CLUSTER PINE.

Pinus Prnaster, foliis geminis elongatis, strobilis verticillatis confertis ovatis sessilibus pendulis, antherarum crista rotundata.

P. Pinaster, foliis geminis, margine subasperis, conis oblongo-conicis, folio brevioribus, basi attenuatis, squamis echinatis. Soland. MSS. Ait. Kew. v. 3. 367.

P. sylvestris y. Linn. Syst. Reich. v. A. 172.

P. maritima altera. Duhamel. Arb. v.2. 125. 2.4. 4.29. Du Rot. Harb. ed. Pott. v. 2. 59.

Habitat in Europee australis maritimis.

Floret Maio.

DESCRIPTIO.

Arbor excelsa, ramis patentibus, subfastigiatis. Folia quadriuncialia, recta, canaliculata, pungentia, leevia; vaginis feré uncialibus. Amenta mascula pedicellata, elliptico-oblonga; antheris subpedi- cellatis, cristé rotundata, indivisd, dentato-lacer4, latitudine antherarum. Bractee omnes setaceo- dentatee. Strobili verticillati, numerosi, sessiles, demiim penduli, ovati, recti, magni, 5-7 unciales,

. . . . A A A squamis submuricatis. Semina parva, ald elongata, retusa.

P. Pinaster is frequent in English plantations, and grows to a great height and size, being very shewy, and bearing large shining cones, it is extremely ornamental, except in its more advanced age, when the branches become naked and very unsightly. The wood is soft, and therefore not so valuable as that of many other trees of this genus. On the mountains of Switzerland the native forests are seldom suffered to stand; being usually either cut into shingle for covering the roofs of houses, or employed for the extraction of pitch. In the south of France the young trees are made into stakes for supporting the vines. The branches grow at a wider distance from one another than those of P. yl- vestris and more horizontally. The leaves are much larger, thicker, and longer, and have a broad surface, with a furrow running longitudinally. The cones are five or six inches long, and grow in very large clusters. Mr. Tucker, of Devonshire, I have been informed, has a tree that once bore as many as eighty in one bunch. The seeds are oblong, a little flattened at the sides, and have narrow wings. The largest trees of this species that I have seen are growing at Pain’s Hill. The first Pinws Pinaster

planted in England, was in Bishop Compton’s garden at Fulham, and is still growing there in a healthy state.

EXPLANATION OF TAB. 4&5.

;

Mane was taken from afi

cd

a Roa Fos x ; ne tree in the Royal Gardens at Kew.

A. Male Catkin. B,B. Anthere.

C. Female Catkin. ‘D,D. Scales.

e. . Ripe Cone.

_ Tas. 5, is copied from a drawing by Ehret, in the possession of Sir Joseph Banks, by whom it was purchased, together with drawings of several other species of Pinws, at the sale of the late Mr. Moore’s

a. Scale of a Cone. b. Inner side of the same. c,c. Seeds.

effects in Shropshire.

lab VE

Cs A ay ey

fa | muni ih a4 *

WG i

° 7 : pe . o : | OF: ag Lerd* Bauer delin Cf OU 5©_ SA APIECR.

Warner scudp.

ny

rae ait

i Lei i"

Bs, Sand a

hb VU.

had. Baner detir.

Sp

Vira “Bauer deh.

Y /). ee PMS

Y) CVLELL.

Tob. VU.

IRD woulp

TAB. 6, 7, & 8.

5 PINUS PIN EA.

THE STONE PINE.

oe . . eye . . . . . . . . . . A Pinus Pinea, foliis geminis, strobilis ovatis maximis, seminum alis abbreviatissimis, antherarum crista dentato-lacera. ji

P. Pinea, foliis geminis, primordialibus ciliatis, conis ovatis, obtusis, subinermibus, folio longioribus, nucibus duris. Soland. MSS. Ait. Kew. v. 3. 368. Wilden. Berlin. Baumz. 209.

P. Pinea, foliis geminis: primordialibus solitariis ciliatis. Linn. Sp. Pl. 1419. Syat. ed. Reich. v. A. 173. Hort. Cliff. 450. ».2. Hort. Ups. 288. Mat. Med..n. 471. Gouan. Hort. 494. Mull. Dict. n. 2. Scop. Carn. n.1197. Regn. Bot. Evel. Sylv. ed. Hunter, 266. fol. Villars. Dauph. v. 3. 806. Allion. Ped. v.2.177. Vitm. Sp. Pl. v. 5. 344.

P. Pinea, foliis geminis, conis pyramidatis, splendentibus, squamis oblongis, obtusis, nucibus ovatis, alA membranaceé destitutis. Dz Roi. Harb. ed. Pott. 2. 52.

P. sativa. Bauh. Pin. 491. Blackw. t.189. Duhamel. Arb. v. 2.125. 2. 1. t. 27.

P. ossiculis duris, foliis longis. Bawh. Hist. uv. 1. p. 2. 248.

P. domestica. Matth. Com. 87. Tabern. Ic. 936.

Zinbellaum. Linn. Pflanzen Syst. 2. 351.

Le Pin. Regnault. Bot. Ic.

Habitat in Europa Australi, Africd Septentrionali.

Floret Maio.

Distinguitur foliis longis, geminis; strobilo ovato, obtuso, maximo; squamis crassis, apice latis, obtusis; nuce oblongo, magno, tereti. Desfont. Fl. Atlant. v. 2. 352.

DESCRIPTIO.

Habitus P. Pinastri, sed folca parim minora, vaginis brevioribus. .Amenta mascula vix pedicellata, antherarum cristé reniformi, subbilobi, dentato-lacera: faminca globosa, erecta, squamis deflexis, supra carinatis. Bractee integree. Strobili solitarii vel oppositi, patentes, subsessiles, ovati, obtusi, maximi, crassi, tuberculosi nec muricati. Semina omnium in hoc genere maxima, ossea, obovata, ald brevissima, retusa.

P. Pinea grows to a considerable height, and is generally pretty straight. The /eaves are about five or six inches long, thick, of a fine green colour, inserted in pairs in a common sheath; they are rounded on one side, but that on which they touch each other is flat. The Male Flowers are in large red bunches, and those of both sexes sometimes appear at the extremity of the same branch. The cones are very large, nearly ovate, and often four inches anda half in length. They consist of very hard scales,

G

12

each having a sort of knob in the middle. The mts are of a large size, and very south They contain kernels which have the sweetness of Almonds. A pleasant oil is obtained by expression. The wood of this tree is tolerably white and resinous, and good boards may often be made of it; but on the whole it is not so valuable as that of many other species of Pines. It is cultivated principally on account of the foliage, and the goodness of the fruit, which last is now become an article of sale in England, and may be found in several of the London fruit-shops. There is a variety, however, as I am informed by Mr. Correa, with respect to these nuts, known in Portugal, by the name of Pixhao molar, and at Naples called Pignuolo molese. This sort is quite soft. In some countries, particularly in Portugal, the cones are sometimes used for fuel.*

EXPLANATION OF TAB. 6, 7, & 8.

Tas. 6 & 7 were taken from a very flourishing tree in the garden of Henry Cavendish, Esq. at Clapham. Tas.6, a. Leaves with their sheath. B. Point of a leaf. C. Male Catkin. D. Anthera. e. Female Catkins of one year’s growth. f, Cones of two years’ growth.

Tas. 7, a. Cones of three years’ growth. b,b. Scales of the same. c. Seed. d. The same deprived of its wing. e. © Hard shell of the seed. f. Kernel. g. Ripe cone of four years’ growth. Tas. 8 was taken from a cone purchased in a shop to shew the greater perfection of those brought from abroad, which are in general distinguished by a small protuberance at the top. a,a. Scales shewing the natural situation of the seeds. b. Wing of the seed. c. Seed without its wing. d. Kernel in its shell. e,e. The same separate. f. Section of the kernel shewing the embryo. G. Embryo magnified.

* The fruit of Pinus Pinea is four years coming to maturity from its first formation,

T have represented each year of its growth in Plate 6 and 7.

Marner setlp.

A . ‘e os MATtLL MC.

.

O

. FYBauer delin

Pa ey

Lu bX.

Barlow sculp

Porerrs RAVAN.

Lird? Bauer delin.

TAB. 9 & 10.

6. PINUS MARITIMA.

MARITIME PINE.

Pinus maritima, foliis geminis tenuissimis, strobilis ovato-conicis glaberrimis solitariis pedunculatis.

P. sylvestris maritima: 424. Kew. v. 3. 366.

P. foliis binis in summitate ramorum fasciculatim collectis. Duhamel. Arb. v. 2. 125. 2.3. Du Roi Harb. ed. Pott. 2. 59.?

Habitat in Europze Australis maritimis. Floret Junio.

DESCRIPTIO.

Arbor 20-pedalis, ramosissima. Fol¢a biuncialia, vel parum longiora, angustissima, vagina brevissima. Strobili solitarii, pedunculati, cernui, ovati, superficie, equales, leevissimi ac nitidi. Seminum ala magna, securiformis.

Tue figure in the 10th Plate representing the above species was drawn from a specimen in the Sherardian Herbarium, to which the following note is annexed.

« P. maritima foliis tenuissimis, conis albicantibus, brevibus, deorsim reflexis, in superficie aqua- libus.” Michel.

Pinastri alterum genus parvum, in maritimis, foliis capillamenti modo tenuissimis. C. Iso’.

P. maritima, conis cinereis, planis. _Phytopin.

Tuts tree, so far as I can judge from one growing at Sion House, the only one I have been able to find, grows to the height of about 20 feet. The branches are very numerous, and bear long, filiform leaves, resembling those of P. halepensis, which are more closely connected towards the extremities of the branches. The